MINILS & WEE in the Informal Sector

FACTSHEET ON WOMEN, LABOUR AND ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT

WOMEN IN LABOUR

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  • There are more men (39.5million) than women (30.1million) in the total labour force[1]
  • The total women labour force participation declined by 2.5% from 45.5% in 2019[2] to 43% in 2020[3].
  • About 40.5% (12.2miilion) of women among the total female labour force were fully employed in 2020. In the same year, 46.3% (18.3million) of men out of the total male labour force gained full employment[4]
  • 35% of women out of the total women labour force are idle and currently not economically productive as against 31.8% for men[5]
  • As a result of covid-19 pandemic, 98% of women-owned businesses in Nigeria either scaled back or shut down[6]
  • 8% of workers engaged in insecure low-paying jobs in Nigeria are women[7]
  • Women spent on average 80 minutes each day collecting water and complained of feeling exhausted as a result[8]

WOMEN IN DIFFERENT SECTORS

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  • Women own only 20 percent of enterprises in the formal sector in Nigeria.[9]
  • Women’s share in the composition of the board of directors of listed companies in Nigeria is 19% even though 49.9% of total population are women[10]
  • 23% of women are engaged in the formal sector while the majority (77%) of thewomen tend to work in the informal sector (PwC, 2020)
  • Female participation in agriculture is about 60 percent to 80 percent and dominate agriculture-processing, legumes and vegetables, raise poultry and small ruminants[11]
  • Women participation in the agricultural sector have dropped from 43% in the year 2000 to 26% in 2018
  • Women participation in the industrial sector have dropped from 12.3% in the year 2000 to 12% in 2018.
  • Women participation in the services sector have increased from 43.7% in the year 2000 to 61.6% in 2018
  • Women have a marginal advantage over men in terms of employment are education sector (38.9%) compared to 14.4% for men,
  • 7% of women are employed in the health sector compared to 3.5% for men[12].
  • Men outnumbered women in the Mining/Construction sector by almost 10 times (11% for men to just 1.3% for women)
  • Ten percent (10%) of men are engaged in the Transport sector compared to just 0.5% for women.
  • In the Electricity sector, only 0.7% of women are engaged in this sector compared to 2.3% for men

WOMEN ACCESS TO FINANCE IN NIGERIA

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  • The number of women who can access financial services is 49.9million, a little bit higher than 49.7million for men[13].
  • 4 million (59%) of women are financially included, while about 67% of men are financially included. Leaving 41% of women financially excluded and 33% of men financially excluded (a gender gap of 8.5%)[14].
  • 20million women do not use any form of financial service or products[15].
  • Twice as many men as women are likely to have a pension product (10.6% of men, 5.4% of women).
  • Only 1% Of women have at least 1 insurance policy[16].
  • Regional disparity in access to fund by women is as huge as 70%
  • About 13.2% of the women in agriculture have access to resources including land, loan, financial services and bank account compared to 86.8% of men[17]. They also have limited ownership and control over resources, particularly farming inputs which impact their ability to develop and sustain agribusiness. Indeed, less than 10% of Nigerian women own land[18].
  • 8% of the women in agriculture have access to services compared to 92% of men.[19]
  • There is serious evidence of wage and income disparities among the gender in Nigeria industrial sector. Only 6.8% of workforce where salaries were paid are women whereas 93.2% are male who enjoyed salaries in mining companies.[20]
  • 31% of women use informal financial services compared to 29% of men[21]
  • 13% of women use savings/thrift collectors as their financial service providers while 8% of women source funds from savings groups[22].
  • Five percent (5%) of women uses village savings and loan association, 2% uses cooperative society and just 1% apply for loan from microfinance institutions[23]

NUMBER OF GOVERNMENTS FUNDED PROGRAMS THAT TARGET WECs

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  • There are seven key projects targeting Women Economic Collectives (WECs) in the 2022 FGN budget estimates amounting to N13.31 billion. This constitutes 36.51% of allocation for women-core Women Economic Empowerment (WEE)projects and 12.86% women-plus-others WEE projects.[24]
  • The sum of N103.49 billion was approved for WEE projects in the 2022 FGN budget estimates.[25]
  • The percentage allocated to WEE is 1.89% of the total federal government capital budget expenditure and 0.60% of its total approved budget size.
  •  The budgetary allocation to WEE in the approved 2022 is by 101.61% compared to the 2021 budget.
  • The total of women-core projects increased from 118 to 164 in 2022, the total women-plus-others WEE project increased from 527 to 774 in 2022. This shows 39% and 47% increase respectively.
  • The overall WEE projects increased from 645 in 2021 to 938 in 2022[26].
  • The Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development has the highest WEE funding in 2022. While retaining its 2021 position, about N33.18 billion (N19 billion or 136% increase) was allocated against the N14.03 billion in 2021. The allocation represents 32% of the total WEE budgetary allocation for the year 2022. [27]
  • The Ministry of Women Affairs has the second highest funding in 2022 fiscal year with N18.82 billion (N13.38 billion or 245% increase), Education with N14.17 billion (N13.27 billion or 1,474% increase), Labour and Employment N10.47 billion (N1.92 billion or 22.52% increase), Industry, Trade and Investment N5.6 billion (N1.9 billion or -25.37% decrease) from the 2021 budgetary allocation[28].
  • 60% of Agricultural Labour Force is Supplied by Women Smallholder Farmers, Yet Budget allocation For Women-Specific Projects in 2022 FMARD Budget is Just 1.3%.[29]
  • The Federal Ministry of Labour and Employment has a sum of N99 million for the supply of processing equipment for vulnerable women multi-purpose cooperatives in the six (6) geopolitical zone in 2022 fiscal year.[30]
  • Only 2.6% of the total Constituency Development Fund (CDF) goes to women specific WEE projects in 2021.[31]

BENEFIT OF INVESTING IN WOMEN’S ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENTdRPC_5

  • Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) could grow by 23 percent($229 billion) by 2025 if women participated in the economy to the same extent as men[32]
  • When women are given the same access to productive resources as men, on average they could increase yields on their farms by 20–30 percent[33].
  • A percentage increase in finance for women will cause entrepreneurship to improve by 1.60 percent[34].
  • Women who receive business and money management programs trainings earn on average 27 percent more than other women in developing countries including Nigeria[35].
  • Investment in women’s groups is estimated to yield benefits ranging from $2 to $17 for every dollar spent through literacy and life skills training, business development and livelihoods initiatives[36]
  • Ending child marriage could yield $7.6 billion in additional earnings and productivity for Nigeria[37]
  • If Nigeria reduced gender inequality both in the labor market and in political representation; in education; in legal rights; and also, by improving health outcomes for women, the economy could grow on average by as much as 1.25 percentage points more”[38].

[1]NBS (2021): Labour Force Statistics, Unemployment and Under-Employment by State – Q4 2020 page 33 & 34

[2] World Bank Economic Outlook 2019.

[3] NBS (2021): Labour Force Statistics, Unemployment and Under-Employment by State – Q4 2020 page 33 & 34

[4] NBS (2021): Labour Force Statistics, Unemployment and Under-Employment by State – Q4 2020 page 34

[5]NBS (2021): Labour Force Statistics, Unemployment and Under-Employment by State – Q4 2020 page 34

[6]Un Women Nigeria (2020): Annual Report 2020: Changing The Lives Of Women And Girls In Nigeria. Page 15

[7] Un Women Nigeria (2020): Annual Report 2020: Changing The Lives Of Women And Girls In Nigeria. Page 11

[8] https://interactions.eldis.org/unpaid-care-work/country-profiles/nigeria

[9]Pwc (2020). Impact of Women on Nigeria’s Economy. Page 4. https://www.pwc.com/ng/en/assets/pdf/impact-of-women-nigeria-economy.pdf

[10]Pwc (2020). Impact Of Women On Nigeria’s Economy. Page 15. Https://Www.Pwc.Com/Ng/En/Assets/Pdf/Impact-Of-Women-Nigeria-Economy.Pdf

[11]Islamic Development Bank (2019): Country Gender profile Nigeria. Page 5 https://www.isdb.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/2020-09/Nigeria%20Gender.pdf

[12] NBS’s Nigeria Living Standards Survey – 2018/2019 page 55 and 56

[13] Enhancing Financial Innovation and Access (2018): Access to Financial Services in Nigeria 2018 Survey. Available at: https://www.efina.org.ng/our-work/research/access/ page 8

[14] Enhancing Financial Innovation and Access (2018): Access to Financial Services in Nigeria 2018 Survey. Available at: https://www.efina.org.ng/our-work/research/access/ page 8

[15] (EFInA, 2018:54)

[16]EFInA, Access to Financial Services in Nigeria2008/2018 surveys page 41

[17] FAO and ECOWAS Commission. 2018. National Gender Profile of Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods – Nigeria. Country Gender Assessment Series, Abuja page 28

[18] FAO and ECOWAS Commission. 2018. National Gender Profile of Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods – Nigeria. Country Gender Assessment Series, Abuja page 34. See also Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2018 page 394.

[19] FAO and ECOWAS Commission. 2018. National Gender Profile of Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods – Nigeria. Country Gender Assessment Series, Abuja. page 28

[20]Women make only 6.8% of Nigeria’s extractive sector workforce – Premium Times Nigeria (premiumtimesng.com)

[21] Enhancing Financial Innovation and Access (2018): Access to Financial Services in Nigeria 2018 Survey. Available at: https://www.efina.org.ng/our-work/research/access/ page 45

[22]Enhancing Financial Innovation and Access (2018): Access to Financial Services in Nigeria 2018 Survey. Available at: https://www.efina.org.ng/our-work/research/access/ page 45

[23]Enhancing Financial Innovation and Access (2018): Access to Financial Services in Nigeria 2018 Survey. Available at: https://www.efina.org.ng/our-work/research/access/ page 45

[24]Federal Government of Nigeria Women’s Economic Empowerment 2022 Budget Analysis – dRPC (drpcngr.org)

[25]Federal Government of Nigeria Women’s Economic Empowerment 2022 Budget Analysis – dRPC (drpcngr.org)

[26]Federal Government of Nigeria Women’s Economic Empowerment 2022 Budget Analysis – dRPC (drpcngr.org)

[27]Federal Government of Nigeria Women’s Economic Empowerment 2022 Budget Analysis – dRPC (drpcngr.org)

[28]Federal Government of Nigeria Women’s Economic Empowerment 2022 Budget Analysis – dRPC (drpcngr.org)

[29]Federal Government of Nigeria Women’s Economic Empowerment 2022 Budget Analysis – dRPC (drpcngr.org)

[30] FGN Approved 2022 Budget Estimate

[31]Federal Government of Nigeria Women’s Economic Empowerment 2022 Budget Analysis – dRPC (drpcngr.org)

[32]Growing Economies Through Gender Parity: Nigeria. https://www.cfr.org/womens-participation-in-global-economy/?utm_medium=direct&utm_source=postcards&utm_campaign=gender-parity-postcards

[33] FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2011. “State of Food and Agriculture – Women and Agriculture: Closing the Gender Gap for Development.” Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

[34] Olukayode, Russell, and Christopher Somoye. 2013. “The Impact of Finance on Entrepreneurship Growth Nigeria: A Cointegration Framework.” ACRN Journal of Entrepreneurship Perspectives 2 (2): 21–45. ISSN 2224-9729

[35]World Bank (2014): “Entrepreneurship Education and Training Programs around the World – Dimensions for Success.” Directions in Development.

[36] Case Study: Nigeria Funding for Gender Equality And The Empowerment Of Women And Girls In Humanitarian Programming. Page 11 https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/GEEWG_UN_Women_Nigeria_new.pdf

[37] Case Study: Nigeria Funding For Gender Equality And The Empowerment Of Women And Girls In Humanitarian Programming. Page 11 https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/GEEWG_UN_Women_Nigeria_new.pdf

[38] IMF (2018): Transcript of podcast with Monique Newiak: “Good for Women, Good for Growth: Closing Nigeria’s Gender Gap”

dRPC Organize Capacity Building on Website Design for MINILS’ IT Staff

L-R, Dr Stanley (dRPC, Abuja); Mallam Aminu (dRPC, Kano); Ajayi Shina (MINILS); Oshoneye Theophilus (MINILS); Mr. Chukwuoma (Website Instructor) at 

TRAINING OF TRAINERS WORKSHOP ON ADVOCACY AND COMMUNICATION FOR WOMEN’S COOPERATIVES

TRAINING OF TRAINERS CAPACITY STRENGTHENING TRAINING WORKSHOP formatted(2).docx (1)

Report Of The Capacity Strengthening Training Workshop On Advocacy And Communication For Women’s Cooperative From The Nigeria For Women Project

REPORT OF THE CAPACITY STRENGTHENING TRAINING WORKSHOP ON ADVOCACY AND COMMUNICATION FOR WOMEN IN NFWP STATES

Report Of The Capacity Building Training Workshop On Advocacy And Communication For Women Empowerment Cooperatives From Kwara State And Officials Of The National Centre For Women Development

REPORT OF THE KWARA STATE CAPACITY STRENGTHENING TRAINING WORKSHOP